设置 Fcitx 5

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This page is a translated version of the page Setup Fcitx 5 and the translation is 52% complete.
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开机自启动

特定发行版中的工具

特定的发行版可能会提供一些用于自动启动 Fcitx 的工具,并且这些工具通常也会设置环境变量。

im-config (Debian/Debian-based/Ubuntu)

这是一个用于 Debian 和 Debian-based 发行版的工具。在登录到 GUI 之后,从命令行执行 im-config,应该会弹出一个向导程序,在其中选择 fcitx5 即可。

imsettings (Fedora)

这是一个与 im-config 类似的程序,它也提供了 GUI 来选择要使用的输入法框架。imsettings 应该是被默认安装的,如果没有,你可以手动安装它。imsettings 可以设置环境变量并且启动相应的输入法,它还提供了一个图形化的前端用于修改配置。你需要做的就是简单地执行im-chooser,log-out 然后再次 log-in。

针对 Fedora 36 KDE 的操作说明。 这个操作说明应该适用于除 GNOME 外的 XDG 兼容桌面。

fcitx5-autostart (Fedora)

这是一个 [fedora package],打包了一个用于设置环境变量和 XDG autostart file 的 /etc/profile.d 脚本,可用于自启动。

XDG Autostart

特定的发行版可能没有提供这个文件,如未提供,你可以直接复制 /usr/share/applications/org.fcitx.Fcitx5.desktop~/.config/autostart

mkdir -p ~/.config/autostart && cp /usr/share/applications/org.fcitx.Fcitx5.desktop ~/.config/autostart

KWin Wayland 5.24+

如果你只使用 Gtk/Qt/Xwayland 应用,那么你不需要这里的操作。如果你希望使用支持 text-input-v3 的原生 wayland 应用,则需要让 KWin 将输入法作为一个特殊的客户端启动。

打开 systemsettings,转到 "Virtual Keyboard" 部分,将输入法从 "None" 改为 "Fcitx 5"

非 XDG 兼容的窗口管理器/Wayland Compoistor

在不支持 XDG Autostart 的场景中,请检查你的窗口管理器的手册中关于如何在系统启动时自动运行应用程序的方法。

Weston

Weston 是一个 wayland compositor 的参考实现,并不是普通用户的常规配置。

如果你希望使用 westons zwp_input_method_v1 实现,你需要确保以下内容存在 ~/.config/weston.ini 文件中(如果路径不是 /usr/bin/fcitx5 请做相应修改)。

[input-method]
path=/usr/bin/fcitx5

如果你已经在同一个会话中运行 fcitx5,当你为了调试和 fcitx5 尝试在 nested mode 中使用 weston 时,会存在特定的问题。

如果你出于调试目的只在 X11 中运行 weston,最简单的方法是在启动 weston 前退出 fcitx5.

另请注意,weston 有一个 bug,在首次运行时不会正确设置 DISPLAY 为输入法。您可能需要终止 fcitx5 一次才能使其正确设置 DISPLAY,或使用 OpenX11Connection dbus 调用来连接 fcitx。

Environment variables

Due to the transition phase in a lot of different places, there is no perfect solution that works for every one. Please choose your own solution based on your environment. Basically what you want to do is to set following environment variables for your desktop session.

XMODIFIERS=@im=fcitx
GTK_IM_MODULE=fcitx
QT_IM_MODULE=fcitx

Though it looks like valid shell script, please *NOTE* that the snippet above is just to demonstrate what these value gonna be. Please check the section below for concrete syntax for different methods.

Login shell profile

If you are using Bash as your login shell, ~/.bash_profile is the best user-level thing you can rely on. It is widely supported by different DMs and will also work if you start graphics from TTY.

  • Supported by mainstream Display manager, including GDM/SDDM/LightDM
  • TTY login

If you are not using bash, you may want to double check if your shell profile can be used as a place to set environment variables, especially you are using some uncommon login shells.

The snippet that you need to add to ~/.bash_profile would be

export XMODIFIERS=@im=fcitx
export GTK_IM_MODULE=fcitx
export QT_IM_MODULE=fcitx

Some may argue that ~/.profile is a shell agnostic solution, which is wrong. While GDM always source this file, SDDM/Bash would not source this file if ~/.bash_profile presents. This makes ~/.bash_profile a better solution because bash is quite widely used. But check your login shell before proceeding, some distribution may not use bash as default shell.

视频演示了如何在 Archlinux 上手动设置环境变量

/etc/profile

Best option if you does not care about modifying a file with root. This file is generally supported by all distribution. The code snippet that you need to append to the end of /etc/profile is same as login shell.

~/.xprofile

An old perfect option if you are using X11 and display manager. But there is no counterpart for Wayland, so it is not ideal if you want to set environment variable for Wayland. The code that you want to add is same as login shell.

environment.d

This is a new configuration that introduced by system.d, but not widely used supported by desktop environment or display manager. It is basically the environment configuration for systemd user unit. Currently, it is only supported by GDM or Plasma 5.22+. As GDM, it means any session that login with GDM will work. As for Plasma, it means it works for Plasma regardless what DM you are using.

This configuration is applied upon your first user session login and persist afterwards unless you manually stop the systemd user. So after you modifies this configuration, the easiest way to make it effective is to reboot your system.

The syntax is similar to shell, but no export is required. For example, you can create a file ~/.config/environment.d/im.conf with following content:

XMODIFIERS=@im=fcitx
GTK_IM_MODULE=fcitx
QT_IM_MODULE=fcitx

pam_env.so

This is an obsolete solution for following reasons:

  • pam deprecate user level configuration ~/.pam_environment since 1.5.0.
  • Some distribution does not enable pam_env in their pam configuration.

If you know it works for your system, you can put following snippet to your ~/.pam_environment.

XMODIFIERS DEFAULT=\@im=fcitx
GTK_IM_MODULE DEFAULT=fcitx
QT_IM_MODULE DEFAULT=fcitx.

Please NOTE that the syntax is different from shell script.

~/.config/plasma-workspace/env/*.sh

A env script location that only works for Plasma desktop, you need to create your own .sh file, e.g. ~/.config/plasma-workspace/env/im.sh and put the code snippet same as login shell.

Other less common setup

There are some other variable that might be useful certain applications.

SDL_IM_MODULE

Set the value to fcitx. Only SDL2 requires this. SDL1 uses XIM.

GLFW_IM_MODULE

This is a variable only used by kitty. You need to set it to `GLFW_IM_MODULE=ibus`.

Binary Qt application

Due to Qt 5 does not support XIM, and it only bundles ibus im module, you may want to set `QT_IM_MODULE=ibus` for Qt application that does not use your system Qt library. (It may still not work because certain Qt application does not even bundle any im module).

DBus

On most distribution that ships with systemd, this should no longer be an issue. But if you are using some so called "systemd" free distribution, you may need to start DBus yourself and set the relevant environment variables. Usually, this can be done by adding a line in like this in your start up script. E.g. ~/.xprofile if you are using X11. Also you need to make sure this syntax works for your login shell.

eval `dbus-launch --sh-syntax --exit-with-session`

Configure Fcitx 5

See Configtool (Fcitx 5).